Ecological commission
21, Gen. Chuprynka Str., Lviv, 290013, Ukraine


by  Eliso Kvavadze, Platon Tretyak

The knowledge of process of transfer by a wind pollen and spores of plants is necessary for maintenance of correctness of palaeoecological reconstruction.  Unfortunately it is not enough investigated. Therefore we'd analysed the contain of plants spores and pollen at surface deposits of soil in Caucasus, Khibin and Carpathian mountains. The received results have shown, that the pollen of wood plants, in particular of beech, flows of a wind is brought highly in mountains and mass is accumulated on a surface of soil in the Alpine zone.

In the past palaeobotanical study in Carpathians (on north-west mkrhillside Chornogora mountain region) were realized by G. Kozij (1932, 1934). He tried to reconstruct the history of the forests of Carpathian during the glacial and postglacial period (, 1950, 1963). According to the materials of his own investigations, oriented to the considerable essential contain in palaespectres of wideleaves trees pollen,  especially of Fagus sylvatica L. he drew a conclusion, that the forests with the beech trees were spread on the upper forest belt of Carpathians in the middle and late Holocene stage. His opinion has coincided with the opinion of other researchers of that time (Szafer, 1935; Firbas, 1949).

Later the subfossil spore-pollen deposits in the same region Srodon were analised (1948). This materials convincing confirm that the might amount of pollen of beech, hornbeam. hazel, lime, oak from the low and middle forest belts of mountains were transfered by the wind to the Alp and Subalp belts. In General, the pollen of wideleaves arborens plants is transfer on large distances in limits of continent. It is confirmed by the results of palynological explorations on the Shpizbergen (Srodon, 1960; Van de Knapp, 1988). The pollen of such arborens species as chestnut, lime, hornbeam, ash, elm, were discoveryd, with the exception of beech pollen.  This facts prove the necessity of the correction of the fossil spore-pollen spectrs based on the analogical spectres present-day surface deposits when reconstruct the paleoecological and botanical -history.  The subfossil coprolites were first treated with KOH solution, further by flotation methods and acetalized by the Erdtman (1943) method. The pollen and spores were analyzed on preparations in glycerine solution using the M8iJ-15 light microscope. The investigated material is kept in a collection of the Palaeobotanical Department of the Institute of Palaeobiology of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi.

In Carpathians the studies were carried out in high-mountain of Chornohora massif in limits of altitudes 1300 - 2061 m. of abs. altitude.

Results of this researches are represented on fig 1. Hence it was established, that in limits of Alp, Subalp and upper foresting belt in spores-pollen spectrums at surface accumulation of soil prevail the pollen of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies (L.) Karst. In limits watershed of range on Alp grasslands prevail (40 -60 %) beech the pollen. On north-west macrohillside in limits of Subalp and upper forest belts the relative quantity of beech pollen reduces till 20 %. Hence, we can draw a coclusion, that beech pollen was brought by the powerful spring winds from mountain valleys, that are located on south-est from Chornohora region.


Fig. 1. Subfossil spore-pollen spectra of surface samples from the Chornohora mountain region (Carpathians)

As against of the Fagus sylvatica pollen that ability to be spread wind Fagus orientalis Lipsky in Abkhaz not discover. Our researches were carried out in the mountain profiles from st. Suchumi- till Zebelda - pass Maruch, on the rever valleys Adange,Amtkel and Large Khodgal (, , 1989) and other. Pollen of beech was discovered at considerable in quantitude (30 - 50 %) in limits of absolute altitudes 1200 - 2100 ., i. e. in limits of foresty, oriental beech mainly. Above till altitude near 2500 relative quantitis of beech pollen make not over 10 %, if you like local winds is fair of him transference.


In Khibin the spore-pollen spectrs of modern deposits were researched by us along valleys of Yucsporrjok in limits of absolute altitude 350 - 650 .  

In their composition is represented the pollen of local foresty species (, , 1995). From wideleaves species were discovered small a quantity lime pollen, but beech pollen was not discovered there. Therefore studies of section marsh-fluvialglacial deposits about Kirowsk were fixed small amounts of beech pollen (till 0.1 %) in seam peat, which radiocarbon age makes 2700- 5770 years. Hence, we can draw a coclusion, that in middle golocen the north limit of european beech spreading reached ed farther to the north from the present day timits, i. e. above 60 degrees N latitude to Scandinavian peninsula.

This materials of explorations give arguments to confirm, that the pollen of Fagus sylvatica is capable to be transfered by wind flows fat up in the mountains, to accumulate in mass in limits of Alp belt as well as to be spread far in the North in limits of Fenoscandias. Analogous tendency to be transfered by wind of the pollen of oriental beech in limits of West Caucasus was not discover.

That tendency to wind transfer of pollen was not taken into account by research of the history of Carpathians forests. It is obvious that the Fagus sylvatica can be refered to the wideregional diagnostic species which is transfered by the wind on large distances from the lower to the upper belts of the mountains. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider the existing ideas about the history of forming of Carpathians forests.